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News For All! To spread awareness among the society for respecting elders and caring isolated elderly people Anadi is organizing an event on 26 April, 2015 at MCF Auditorium. To be a part of it you can contact @ our front office S-18, Eldeco Station-1 Mall, Sec-12, Faridabad.To give a platform to the young talents 'Anadi' is organizing an Inter School Competition on 16th Feb 2015. Come! Be a part of it and show your potential to the world.“Na pooja se, na geeta se adaa hoti hai, Na baadshaahon ki daulat se ataa hoti hai, Rehmatein barasti hain sirf aur sirf unpar, Jinke daaman mein buzurgon ki dua hoti hai” Inspired by these lines, Anadi seva prakalp led by Mr. Pranav Shukla is launching a 3 month long campaign – “Anadi Swaasthya Abhiyaan” especially for the elderly with the help of a group of doctors from varied specialties. The campaign started from village Pali on June 23, 2013 moving onto the neighboring areas like Dhauj, Bhakri, Suroorpur and Mohtabad , NIT 1,2,3,4,5 on subsequent weekends. The checkup shall start in the morning from 11.00 a.m. extending upto the afternoon till 2.00 P.M. The medical specialities shall include Orthopaedics, dentistry, surgery as well as general medicine. Directed towards the elderly as well as the general population, the campaign also aims to spread awareness towards the common health issues, besides providing them with health checkup.Anadi successfully met its target for the number of followers @ Earth Hour initiative driven by Anadi.HOLI MILAN. Anadi Seva Sadan Celebrated HOLI with the elders of the Ashram. Anadi, in association with G6SaveEarth, organized a Go Green drive on 28th Feb, 2010. Members planted trees in sec 21c..Go Green Drive 3 - Say NO to Plastic. G6 Save Earth in collaboration with Anadi, drive on 22 & 23 may, 10. Distributing eco friendly bags..

How To Get Laughter Into Your Life?

Watch humorous movies and shows 

There is absolutely no dearth of comedy movies and shows on television. Head to a nearby store and you are sure to find a long list of movies that are only meant to tickle your funny bone. Several comedy shows on television can also serve the purpose just as well. However, make sure that you are watching something that is truly hilarious rather than something that is marginally funny. 

Laugh out with your friends 
While laughing alone has therapeutic benefits, laughing out with your friends can be even more relaxing. Go out for a comedy show with your friends or simply set up a dinner. When you are laughing with your friends, the laughter spree is sure to go on endlessly. 

Look for reasons 
There is no harm in trying to find a little humor in your life. Instead of being frustrated about situations, try to laugh at them. Once you start laughing over things rather than being tensed about them, you will find yourself less stressed. 

Start laughing and you will find stress driving away. And, since laughing is not that difficult a task, why not start right away

Let it reach the 110 crores Indians and the remaining if any. 
'Imitinef Mercilet' is a medicine, which cures blood cancer. Its available free of cost at "Adyar Cancer Institute in Chennai". Create Awareness. It might help someone.

Healthy living tips for those who want to live a long life 

These days our health and life expectancy are threatened from all sides by numerous factors. It is your responsibility to take some basic precautions to safeguard your health and ensure the potential for you to live a long life. This article deals with five major things you can do to make sure you stay healthy well into your old age.

1. Quit smoking 

Smoking is really, really bad for you. 
Smoking has the following detrimental effects on your health: 

(i) Smoking causes emphysema < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Emphysema > ,which is the loss of lung tissue. This causes breathlessness, the severity of which increases as emphysema gets worse. 

Unfortunately, by the time you start to notice any ill effects, you will have lost 50% of your lung tissue. The lung tissue does not grow back. (Some sources claim that if you stop smoking before you are twenty years old, some lung tissue recovery may occur.) 

(ii) Smoking causes chronic bronchitis. Essentially this is an infection caused by the accumulation of dirty mucus in your bronchi. The mucus is there to keep your lungs < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Lungs >  clean by trapping dirt and bacteria, but smoking damages the cells in charge of removing the dirty mucus, so the mucus stagnates and this causes bronchitis. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Chronic_bronchitis > 

(iii) Smoking causes loss of hearing 

< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hearing_(sense) >  and damages your eyesight. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Sight >  The reason for this is simple: nicotine < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Nicotine >  makes blood vessels < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Blood_vessel >  constrict. The hair cells in your ear are supplied with food and oxygen by capillaries (tiny blood vessels) - if you smoke, nicotine makes these capillaries constrict, which can cause the death of some hair cells in your ear. This causes permanent hearing loss. The more you smoke, the more hair cells are killed and the more hearing you lose. 
The same applies to the capillaries in your eyes: smoking makes them constrict, which can make some cells in your eyes die. The more you more smoke, the worse off your eyes will be. 

(iv) Smoking causes lung cancer. Lung cancer < http://www.lungcancer.org/ > kills 95% of people who get it, and most people diagnosed with lung cancer die within a year. Doctors say that patients who are told they have lung cancer typically freak out and beg the doctor to save their life; they never say "Fair enough - I knew I was a taking a risk and I accepted it. At least I enjoyed many cigarettes." 
If you care about your health and wish to avoid great suffering, quit smoking. 

2. Avoid stress 

(i) Stress can put you at greater risk of heart attacks < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Myocardial_infarction >  and strokes. This is 
because stress favors the deposition of fat in the arteries. 

(ii) Stress can cause short-term memory loss. 

(iii) Stress can weaken the immune system, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Immune_system >  making you more likely to fall ill. 

(iv) Stress makes you age < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Aging >  faster. You will start to lose your attractiveness prematurely if you are subjected to regular stress. 

(v) Stress can significantly reduce your life expectancy. Stress is so bad for you that many doctors blame 80% of minor everyday ailments on stress. 

It's really not cool to be stressed - if you are living a stressful life, you must take steps to remove as many sources of stress as possible. That may mean finding another job - getting stressed to make your company owner rich, all for a pathetic check at the end of the month, is REALLY not worth it and is a total waste of your life. Find an alternative. Start your own business, work from home and improve your quality of life. 

3. Eat a healthy diet 

A healthy diet consists of the following nutrients: 

Carbohydrates < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Carbohydrate >  - needed as an energy source. Sources include bread, pasta and rice. 

Protein < http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/ nutritionsource/protein.html >  - needed for growth. Sources include eggs, meat, fish and soya beans. 

Lipids < http://biology.clc.uc.edu/ Courses/bio104/lipids.htm >  (fats) - needed for energy storage, insulation and cell membranes. 
< http://cellbio.utmb.edu/ cellbio/membrane.htm >  It is far healthier to consume unsaturated fats, such as olive oil, 
< http://www.healingdaily.com/ detoxification-diet/olive-oil. htm >  than saturated fats such as butter. 

Vitamins < http://kidshealth.org/kid/ stay_healthy/food/vitamin.html >  and mineral ions are needed in small quantities - you will assimilate sufficient quantities of these micronutrients if you eat a wide variety of fruit and vegetables. 

Fiber < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Dietary_fiber >  (roughage): we cannot digest fiber (cellulose) but it is essential for the health of your gut. Not eating enough fiber will make you constipated and increases the chances of gut cancer. < http://www.cancer.org/ > 

Tips for a healthy diet: 

(i) Avoid eating too much red meat - this increases the risk of gut cancer. 

(ii) Eat a wide variety of fruit and vegetables - plenty of them. They contain antioxidants 
< http://www.webmd.com/food- recipes/tc/antioxidants-topic- overview >  that can 
delay ageing < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ageing >  and decrease the risk of cancer. They will also keep your gut healthy and supply you with all the vitamins and minerals you need. 

(iii) Avoid saturated fats: these include butter and animal fat. Saturated fats clog up your arteries and put you at risk of heart attacks and strokes. Unsaturated fats, such as olive oil, are much healthier for you. 

(iv) Do not eat too much cholesterol, < http://www.americanheart.org/ presenter.jhtml?identifier= 1516 >  as this 
increases the likelihood of heart attac ks and strokes. Eggs are rich incholesterol, so do not eat too many. 

(v) Do not eat too much - eating too much will make you overweight, < http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/ dnpa/obesity/ >  and being overweight increases the chances of having a heart attack, as well as decreasing your overall life expectancy. Research has shown that eating exactly what you need and no more - as opposed to eating all you want - can significantly increase your life expectancy (interestingly enough, this has been found to be the case across many species, not just humans). 

(vi) Avoid refined sugar: it causes tooth decay and gum disease. < http://www.perio.org/ consumer/2a.html>  Eating too much carbohydrate (sugars are carbohydrates) can also make you overweight, and as mentioned above being overweight increases the chances of having a heart attack. 

(vii) Eat several small meals a day. Eating five or six small meals a day is much better for you than eating three large ones. Spreading your daily food intake over several meals makes it a lot easier to lose weight, and is simply much better for your body. Whether you want to lose weight or wish to maintain you hard-earned slimness, you should aim to consume five or six small meals every day. 

viii) Taking krill oil supplements < http://www.squidoo.com/krill- oil-benefits >  will also make a very positive contribution to your health. Studies have shown that krill oil helps to keep the heart and brain healthy, and slows down the ageing process through its 
considerable antioxidant activity. 

4. Take regular exercise 

Taking regular exercise increases your lung capacity < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Lung_volumes > and makes your heart stronger. Regular exercise can also significantly reduce the likelihood of having a heart attack or stroke. 

Other benefits of exercise: 

(i) Along with eating five or six small healthy meals a day, taking regular exercise is the most important factor in losing weight.The evidence now shows that resistance training (lifting weights) will lose you more weight than jogging and other aerobic exercises. If you are a female, don't worry about becoming buff and losing your femininity: doing more reps with lighter weights will tone you up very nicely without making you look like a body builder. 

(ii) Physical exercise will make you more attractive: in addition to making you slimmer and more toned, it will make your face leaner and less flabby, making you look more "hunky" and realizing the full potential of your face. So many people have found that after a few months of taking regular physical exercise, they lose the flab from their face, revealing the facial structure in all its glory. 

(iii) Physical exercise promotes the release of endorphins < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Endorphin >  in the brain: this makes you feel full of positive energy and gives you a zest for life. For this reason, physical exercise can also greatly help with depression. 

5. Get plenty of quality sleep 

Good sleep is of paramount importance to your physical and mental health. Important things such as long-term learning and tissue repair happen while you sleep, and while it is true that different people need different amounts of sleep, you MUST listen 
to your body and give it what it needs. 

Not sleeping enough may have the following consequences: 

(i) premature aging (this is why it's called "beauty sleep": getting plenty of quality sleep will help preserve your attractiveness) 

(ii) short-term memory loss < http://www.medicinenet.com/ script/main/forum.asp? articlekey=63547 > 

(iii) weakened immune system, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Immune_system > making you more likely to fall ill 

(iv) increased risk of heart attacks (shown by recent research). 

Notice how lack of sleep can cause exactly the same problems as stress. 

Furthermore, it is important to sleep at night rather than during the day. Studies have shown that people who work night shifts and sleep during the day have a significantly lower life expectancy than those who work during the day and sleep at night. That's right: there is scientific evidence that suggests that people who have to work at night have a lower average life expectancy. If you are one of them, you owe it to yourself to find a job that does not require you to work at night and sleep during the day. 

If your job (or the stress it causes) does not allow you to get plenty of quality sleep this is really NOT acceptable and you are not being fair to yourself. Sort it out. 

6. Get rid of debt and live within your means 

Financial worries can destroy your health in the long run. Financial worries can take a heavy toll on your health: they can give you insomnia, severe anxiety, hypertension and depression. Get rid of your debt - your physical and mental health will be better for it. 

Conclusion: You are more likely to live a long and healthy life if you quit smoking, eat healthy food, avoid stress, take regular exercise and get plenty of quality sleep. The scary thing is that many people score very poorly on all five counts. If you smoke, eat badly, do not take exercise, don't sleep enough and lead a stressful life, you are in very, very bad shape. Now is the time to take responsibility for your own 

Live long and prosper! 


Why Use Laughter To Manage Stress?

Laughter is one of the best stress busters. It works in more than just one way to distress you and make you feel relaxed. 

Reduces stress hormones- There are several hormones that are related to stress. Some of these hormones include cortisol, dopamine, growth hormone and epinephrine. Along with reducing the level of these stress hormones, it increases the endorphins in your blood stream, which is also known as the feel good hormone. 

Physical release- Laughter helps you release the stored tension both at the physical and the mental level. Once you have a hearty laugh, you will feel cleansed and at ease.

Helps you exercise- Much to your surprise, laughter ensures a good workout too. It exercises your diaphragm, contracts the abs and even works out your shoulders.

Takes away negative emotions- When you laugh, you tend to deviate your attention from negative emotions like stress, anger, frustration and the like.

Gives you a positive attitude- If you inculcate laughter into your life, you are sure to find a more positive attitude towards things. And, optimism is the key to keeping stress at bay. 


How To Deal With Hypostress?

Hypostress is basically caused due to lack of sufficient challenges or opportunities. If you are involved in an unchallenging job, then you might as well consider changing your job. However, if you are struggling with boredom and have nothing productive to do, you may consider taking up your favourite hobbies. Exercising can also be a good option here. 

Whether you are suffering from hyperstress or hypostresss, make sure that you find a solution to either as stress in any form has adverse effects on your body.


Laughter is the best medicine. Indeed, it is as it helps you cope with a lot of health issues including stress. Infusing a bit of laughter into life can help you stay stress free and happier. 


How To Save Yourself From CANCER ?


Cancer Update from Johns Hopkins : 

1. Every person has cancer cells in the body. These cancer cells do not show up in the standard tests until they have multiplied to a few billion. When doctors tell cancer patients that there are no more cancer cells in their bodies after treatment, it just means the tests are unable to detect the cancer cells because they have not reached the detectable size. 

2. Cancer cells occur between 6 to more than 10 times in a person's lifetime. 

3. When the person's immune system is strong the cancer cells will be destroyed and prevented from multiplying and forming tumors. 

4. When a person has cancer it indicates the person has nutritional deficiencies. These could be due to genetic, to environmental, food and lifestyle factors. 

5. To overcome the multiple nutritional deficiencies, changing diet and including supplements will strengthen the immune system. 

6. Chemotherapy involves poisoning the rapidly-growing cancer cells and also destroys rapidly-growing healthy cells in the bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract etc, and can cause organ damage, like liver, kidneys, heart, lungs etc. 

7. Radiation while destroying cancer cells also burns, scars and damages healthy cells, tissues and organs. 

8. Initial treatment with chemotherapy and radiation will often reduce tumor size. However prolonged use of chemotherapy and radiation do not result in more tumor destruction. 

9. When the body has too much toxic burden from chemotherapy and radiation the immune system is either compromised or destroyed, hence the person can succumb to various kinds of infections and complications. 

10. Chemotherapy and radiation can cause cancer cells to mutate and become resistant and difficult to destroy. 
Surgery can also cause cancer cells to spread to other sites. 

11. An effective way to battle cancer is to starve the cancer cells by not feeding it with the foods it needs to multiply. 


a. Sugar is a cancer-feeder. By cutting off sugar it cuts off one important food supply to the cancer cells. Sugar substitutes like NutraSweet, Equal, Spoonful, etc are made with Aspartame and it is harmful. A better natural substitute would be Manuka honey or molasses, but only in very small amounts. Table salt has a chemical added to make it white in color Better alternative is Bragg's aminos or sea salt. 

b. Milk causes the body to produce mucus, especially in the gastro-intestinal tract. Cancer feeds on mucus. By cutting off milk and substituting with unsweetened soy milk cancer cells are being starved. 

c. Cancer cells thrive in an acid environment. A meat-based diet is acidic and it is best to eat fish, and a little chicken rather than beef or pork. Meat also contains livestock antibiotics, growth hormones and parasites, which are all harmful, especially to people with cancer.. 

d. A diet made of 80% fresh vegetables and juice, whole grains, seeds, nuts and a little fruits help put the body into an alkaline environment. About 20% can be from cooked food including beans. Fresh vegetable juices provide live enzymes that are easily absorbed and reach down to cellular levels within 15 minutes to nourish and enhance growth of healthy cells.. To obtain live enzymes for building 
healthy cells try and drink fresh vegetable juice (most vegetables including bean sprouts) and eat some raw vegetables 2 or 3 times a day. Enzymes are destroyed at temperatures of 104 degrees F (40 degrees C). 

e. Avoid coffee, tea, and chocolate, which have high caffeine. Green tea is a better alternative and has cancer fighting properties. Water-best to drink purified water, or filtered, to avoid known toxins and heavy metals in tap water. Distilled water is acidic, avoid it. 

12. Meat protein is difficult to digest and requires a lot of digestive enzymes. Undigested meat remaining in the intestines becomes putrefied and leads to more toxic buildup. 

13. Cancer cell walls have a tough protein covering. By refraining from or eating less meat it frees more enzymes to attack the protein walls of cancer cells and allows the body's killer cells to destroy the cancer cells. 

14.. Some supplements build up the immune system (IP6, Flor-ssence, Essiac, anti-oxidants, vitamins, minerals, EFAs etc.) to enable the bodies own killer cells to destroy cancer cells.. Other supplements like vitamin E are known to cause apoptosis, or programmed cell death, the body's normal method of disposing of damaged, unwanted, or unneeded cells. 

15. Cancer is a disease of the mind, body, and spirit. A proactive and positive spirit will help the cancer warrior be a survivor. Anger, un-forgiveness and bitterness put the body into a stressful and acidic environment. Learn to have a loving and forgiving spirit. Learn to relax and enjoy life. 

16. Cancer cells cannot thrive in an oxygenated environment. Exercising daily, and deep breathing help to get more oxygen down to the cellular level. Oxygen therapy is another means employed to destroy cancer cells. 

1. No plastic containers in micro. 

2. No water bottles in freezer. 

3. No plastic wrap in microwave.. 

Johns Hopkins has recently sent this out in its newsletters. This information is being circulated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center as well. Dioxin chemicals cause cancer, especially breast cancer. Dioxins are highly poisonous to the cells of our bodies. Don't freeze your plastic bottles with water in them as this releases dioxins from the plastic. Recently, Dr Edward Fujimoto, Wellness Program Manager at Castle Hospital, was on a TV program to explain this health hazard. He talked about dioxins and how bad they are for us. He said that we should not be heating our food in the microwave using plastic containers. This especially applies to foods that contain fat.. He said that the combination of fat, high heat, and plastics releases dioxin into the food and ultimately into the cells of the body. Instead, he recommends using glass, such as Corning Ware, Pyrex or ceramic containers for heating food. You get the same results, only without the dioxin. So such things as TV dinners, instant ramen and soups, etc., should be removed from the container and heated in something else. Paper isn't bad but you don't know what is in the paper. It's just safer to use tempered glass, Corning Ware, etc. He reminded us that a while ago some of the fast food restaurants moved away from the foam containers to paper The dioxin problem is one of the reasons.

Also, he pointed out that plastic wrap, such as Saran, is just as dangerous when placed over foods to be cooked in the microwave. As the food is nuked, the high heat causes poisonous toxins to actually melt out of the plastic wrap and drip into the food. Cover food with a paper towel instead. 

Hyperstress and Hypostress 

There are numerous people who deal with stress on a daily basis. But, not all of them deal with the same kind of stress. Stress can be categorized into various types. Amidst various other kinds of stress, it is hyper stress and hypo stress that are the most prominent. Let us take a closer look at these two common types of stress and how you can deal with them. 

Hyperstress is a type of stress that is caused due to extremely pressurizing situations. When an individual is forced to take up more things or work than he/she can handle, it results in hyperstress. In most cases, hyperstress is caused as a result of an extremely pressurizing job. 

If you are struggling with hyperstress, chances are that you would respond to even the minutest of stressors in an exaggerated way. The problem also causes huge emotional outbreaks for every small reason or even for no reason at all. The reason for the same being that hyperstress builds up a lot of frustration and agitation in an individual. Which usually circumvents in the form of emotional outbreaks. 

How to deal with hyperstress? 
Hyperstress can have serious physical as well as emotional consequences. So, if you are dealing with the problem, you must take adequate steps to battle it out. Since hyperstress is primarily caused due to over pressurizing jobs, sorting out things at work will be of great help. List out the tasks that you need to perform in the order of priority. Start accomplishing the tasks in the same order. Effective time management also helps combat hyperstress. 

While hyperstress is caused due to too much work load, hypostress is caused when a person has nothing to do at all. In simple words, hypostress can be described as insufficient amount of stress. When people have nothing to do, they tend to get bored. When this boredom prevails for a long period of time, it results in stress, known as hypostress. 

Usually people who are in unchallenging jobs find themselves suffering from hypostress. Hypostress can lead to lack of inspiration, which may make an individual feel unenthusiastic and de-motivated. People dealing with this type of stress often find themselves juggling with restlessness. 


What Are The Benefits Of Ginger?

Ginger is one of the world's seven most potent disease-fighting spices. 

Ginger has been used for its health benefits for over 5000 years and is a favorite medicinal as well as culinary herb. 
Unlike most spices, the part that has the most medicinal value grows under ground. Often mistakenly called “ginger root” this is actually the rhizome of the plant which is more of a subterranean stem than a root. Although you can use dried ginger and powdered ginger for health benefits, fresh ginger is preferred.

The intake of ginger helps stimulate the secretion of mucus, quieting your cough and soothing any scratchiness in your throat. 

Ginger has been proven (in multiple studies) to treat feelings of nausea, particularly in the form of seasickness, morning sickness, motion sickness and as a side effect of chemotherapy. 

In pregnancy is to be extra careful!! Never use any herb, including ginger, without first discussing it with your doctor!! As for those suffering from ulcer, or other very serious gastric problems, they should also consult their doctor. 

Ginger contains anti viral, anti toxic, and anti fungal properties, and is used for the prevention of and treatment against the common cold. 

Ginger acts as an antihistamine and 

aids in the treatment of allergies. 

Ginger displays anti inflammatory properties and can be used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and various other muscular disorders. 

The chemical components of the root are instrumental in inhibiting the biosynthesis of prostaglandins which are responsible for causing inflammation. 

Thus the root has proven to be a highly effective form of treatment, in some cases, even more so than the NSAID's that are traditionally prescribed. 

So eating ginger may help to prevent 

cancer and aging disorders. 

Ginger contains special enzymes responsible for catalyzing the proteins in your food, thus aiding in digestion and the prevention of cramps. 

Good for those with constipation! 

The ancient Greeks used to eat ginger after a large meal, 

in order to ease the digestion process. 

Ginger has proven to help lower your cholesterol 

levels and prevent the formation of blood clots. 

As a mood enhancer, ginger's cineole content 

may help contribute to stress relief. 

Also used for migraine headache. 

Ginger can also be used for reducing toothache and the discomfort which arises due to the infection in the upper respiratory tract due to its antibacterial and antifungal nature. 
Chewing on fresh ginger,, 
can help freshen the breath. 

Being a warming herb, ginger can help knock out a fever. This property also makes it effective in stimulating circulation of the blood. 

It can also help relax muscles around the blood vessels and is said to help prevent blood clots from forming. The warming effects make it a natural decongestant as well as an antihistamine, making it the perfect remedy for colds. 

Some studies show that it can even help inhibit 

the replication of the herpes simplex virus. 

Recent studies show that ginger might also have a role in lowering LDL cholesterol because the spice can help reduce the amount of cholesterol that is absorbed. 

It has also been shown in animal trials to help slow 

or even prevent cancerous tumor growth. 

To discover the health benefits of ginger for yourself, simply make a tea by steeping about 5 slices of ginger in hot water. 

If you prefer it in your food, 

Ginger is excellent in many dishes and 

is perfect when combined with garlic. 

Ginger doesn't only spice up your food it can also help to put some extra spice in your intimate life too. It improves blood flow to your sexual organs, and contains Vitamin C, zinc and magnesium.

Hope it will be of benefits to you & others. 

Wishing You All A Happy Healthy Life. 

“Health is Wealth” 

Why Farm Organically?

Organic farming provides long-term benefits to people and the environment. 

Organic farming aims to: 
• increase long-term soil fertility. 
• control pests and diseases without harming the environment. 
• ensure that water stays clean and safe. 
• use resources which the farmer already has, so the farmer needs less money to buy farm inputs. 
• produce nutritious food, feed for animals and high quality crops to sell at a good price. 

Modern, intensive agriculture causes many problems, including the following: 
• Artificial fertilisers and herbicides are easily washed from the soil and pollute rivers, lakes and water courses. 
• The prolonged use of artificial fertilisers results in soils with a low organic matter content which is easily eroded by wind and rain. 
• Dependency on fertilisers. Greater amounts are needed every year to produce the same yields of crops. 
• Artificial pesticides can stay in the soil for a long time and enter the food chain where they build up in the bodies of animals and humans, causing health problems. 
• Artificial chemicals destroy soil micro-organisms resulting in poor soil structure and aeration and decreasing nutrient availability. 
• Pests and diseases become more difficult to control as they become resistant to artificial pesticides. The numbers of natural enemies decrease because of pesticide use and habitat loss. 

Crop nutrition 

To produce a healthy crop an organic farmer needs to manage the soil well. This involves considering soil life, soil nutrients and soil structure. Artificial fertilisers provide only short term nutrient supply to crops. They encourage plants to grow quickly but with soft growth which is less able to withstand drought, pests and disease. Artificial fertilisers do not feed soil life and do not add organic matter to the soil. This means that they do not help to build good soil structure, improve the soils water holding capacity or drainage. The soil is a living system. As well as the particles that make up the soil, it contains millions of different creatures. These creatures are very important forrecycling nutrients. 

Feeding the soil with manure or compost feeds the whole variety of life in the soil which then turns this material into food for plant growth. This also adds nutrients and organic matter to the soil. Green manures also provide nutrients and organic matter. These are plants with high nitrogen content that are sown as part of a rotation and are dug into the soil when young. 

It is important to remember, however, that using too much animal manure or nutrient rich organic matter, or using it at the wrong time, could be as harmful as using man-made, artificial fertilisers. The organic farmer must cultivate the soil at the right time and in the right ways to provide the best living conditions for the soil life and plant roots. 

Choice of crops 

Each crop and crop variety has its own specific needs. In some places it will grow well and others it will not. Crops are affected by; 
• soil type 
• rainfall 
• altitude 
• temperature 
• the type and amount of nutrients required 
• the amount of water needed 

These factors affect how a crop grows and yields. If a crop is grown in a climate to which it is not suited, it is likely to produce low yields and be more susceptible to pest and diseases. This then creates the need to use agrochemicals to fertilise the crop and control pest and diseases. 

The successful organic farmer learns to grow the crops and varieties which are suited to the local conditions. He should grow crops which are suited to his geography and climate. He should choose varieties which are suited to the local conditions such as local varieties. 


Growing the same crops in the same site year after year reduces soil fertility and can encourage a build up of pests, diseases and weeds in the soil. Crops should be moved to a different area of land each year, and not returned to the original site for several years. For vegetables a 3 to 4 year rotation is usually recommended as a minimum. 

Crop rotation means having times where the fertility of the soil is being built up and times where crops are grown which remove nutrients. 

Crop rotation also helps a variety of natural predators to survive on the farm by providing diverse habitats and sources of food for them. 

A typical 4 year rotation would include a cycle with maize and beans, a root crop and cereals with either of the following; 

1. Grass or bush fallow (a fallow period where no crops are grown). 
2. A legume crop where a green manure, which is a plant grown mainly for the benefit of the soil, is grown (more information about green manures can be obtained from HDRA).

A simple rotation that includes a legume 
• Cereal

• legume

• roots

• maize /beans 


Compost is organic matter (plant and animal residues) which has been rotted down by the action of bacteria and other organisms, over a period of time. 

Materials such as leaves, fruit skins and animal manures can be used to make compost. Compost is cheap, easy to make and is a very effective material that can be added to the soil, to improve soil and crop quality. 

• Compost improves the structure of the soil. This allows more air into the soil, improves drainage and reduces erosion. 
• Compost improves soil fertility by adding nutrients and by making it easier for plants to take up the nutrients already in the soil. This produces better yields. 
• Compost improves the soil's ability to hold water. This stops the soil from drying out in times of drought. 
• Compost can reduce pests and diseases in the soil and on the crop.

The layers of a compost heap 
Grass cover 
Green vegetation 
Mature vegetation 
Coarse plant material 

There are many ways to make compost depending on available materials and climate, for example: 
• Indore method 
• Bangalore method 
• Heating process/Block method 
• Chinese high temperature stack 
• Pit composting 
• Trench composting 
• Basket composting 
• Boma composting 

Pit composting 

Compost has many advantages over chemical fertilisers. These provide nutrients for plants but do not improve soil structure. They usually only improve yields in the season in which they are applied. Because compost feeds soil life and improves soil structure, the beneficial effects are long lasting. 

turn after 15 days 
turn after another 15days 
15 days more compost 
ready after 4 to 5 days ingredients for compost 


Mulching  means covering the ground with a layer of loose material such as compost, manure, straw, dry grass, leaves or crop residues. Green vegetation is not normally used as it can take a long time to decompose and can attract pests and fungal diseases. 

Mulches have several effects on the soil which help to improve plant growth: 
• Decreasing water loss due to evaporation 
• Reducing weed growth by reducing the amount of light reaching the soil 
• Preventing soil erosion 
• Increasing the number of micro-organisms in the top soil 
• Adding nutrients to the soil and improving soil structure 
• Adding organic matter to the soil 
Alternative mulching materials include black plastic sheeting or cardboard. 
However these materials do not add nutrients to the soil or improve its structure. 

How to use mulches 

• Always apply mulches to a warm, wet soil. Mulch applied to a dry soil will keep the soil dry. 
• Care should be taken as to the thickness of the mulch applied. Too much mulch will prevent air flow and encourage pests. 
• To allow the germination of planted seeds through the mulch, a layer of lessthan 10cm should be used. 
• To clear an area of land of persistent weeds a layer of 10cm or more can be used. 

Mulching with large leaves 

Green manures

Green manures, often known as cover crops, are plants which are grown to improve the structure, organic matter content and nutrient content of the soil. They are a cheap alternative to artificial fertilisers and can be used to complement animal manures. Growing a green manure is not the same as simply growing a legume crop, such as beans, in a rotation. Green manures are usually dug into the soil when the plants are still young, before they produce any crop and often before they flower. They are grown for their green leafy material which is high in nutrients and provides soil cover. They can be grown together with crops or alone. Green manures: 

• Increase and recycle plant nutrients and organic matter 
• Improve soil fertility 
• Improve soil structure 
• Improve the ability of the soil to hold 

• Control soil erosion 
• Prevent weed growth 
• Stop nutrients being washed out of the soil, for example, when the ground is not used between main crops. Centro (Centrosema pubescens), a useful green manure 

Weed control 

In organic farming systems, the aim is not necessarily the elimination of weeds but their control. Weed control means reducing the effects of weeds on crop growth and yield. 
Organic farming avoids the use of herbicides which, like pesticides, leave harmful residues in the environment. Beneficial plant life such as host plants for useful insects may also be destroyed by herbicides.

On an organic farm, weeds are controlled using a number of methods: 
• Crop rotation 
• Hoeing 
• Mulches, which cover the soil and stop weed seeds from germinating 
• Hand-weeding or the use of mechanical weeders 
• Planting crops close together within each bed, to prevent space for weeds to emerge 
• Green manures or cover crops to outcompete weeds 
• Soil cultivation carried out at repeated intervals and at the appropriate time, when the soil is moist. Care should be taken that cultivation does not cause soil erosion. 
• Animals as weeders to graze on weeds 

Weeds do have some useful purposes. They can provide protection from erosion, food for animals and beneficial insects and food for human use. 

Natural pest and disease control 

Pests and diseases are part of nature. In the ideal system there is a natural balance between predators and pests. If the system is imbalanced then one population can become dominant because it is not being preyed upon by another. 
The aim of natural control is to restore a natural balance between pest and predator and to keep pests and diseases down to an acceptable level. The aim is not to eradicate them altogether. 

Chemical control 

Pesticides do not solve the pest problem. In the past 50 years, insecticide use has increased tenfold, while crop losses from pest damage have doubled. Here are three important reasons why natural control is preferable to pesticide use. 

Safety for people 

Artificial pesticides can quickly find their way into food chains and water courses. 
This can create health hazards for humans. 
Human health can also be harmed by people eating foods (especially fruit and vegetables) which still contain residues of pesticides that were sprayed on the crop. 
There is also much concern for those people using chemical pesticides. The products may be misused because the instructions are not written in the language spoken by the person using them. This has led to many accidents such as reports of people suffering from severe skin rashes and headaches as a result of using chemical pesticides. There are an estimated one million cases of poisoning by pesticides each year around the world. Up to 20,000 of these result in death. Most of the deaths occur in tropical countries where chemical pesticides which are banned in Europe or the USA are still available. 


Using natural pest and disease control is often cheaper than applying chemical pesticides because natural methods do not involve buying materials from the outside. Products and materials which are already in the home and around the farm are most often used. 

Safety for the environment 

There are a number of harmful effects that chemical pesticides can have on the environment: 

• Chemical pesticides can kill useful insects which eat pests. Just one spray can upset the balance between pests and the useful predators which eat them. 

• Artificial chemicals can stay in the environment and in the bodies of animals causing problems for many years. 

• Insect pests can very quickly, over a few breeding cycles, become resistant to artificial products and are no longer controlled. This means that increased amounts or stronger chemicals are then needed creating further economic, health and environmental problems. 

Natural control 

There are many ways in which the organic farmer can control pests and diseases. 

• Growing healthy crops that suffer less damage from pests and diseases. 
• Choosing crops with a natural resistance to specific pests and diseases. Local varieties are better at resisting local pest and diseases than introduced varieties. 
• Timely planting of crops to avoid the period when a pest does most damage. 
• Companion planting with other crops that pests will avoid, such as onion or garlic. 

Companion planting 

• Trapping or picking pests from the crop. 
• Identifying pest and diseases correctly. This will prevent the farmer from wasting time or accidentally eliminating beneficial insects. It is therefore useful to know life cycles, breeding habits, preferred host plants andpredators of pests. 
Organic Farming 
• Using crop rotations to help break pest cycles and prevent a carry over of pests to the next season. 
• Providing natural habitats to encourage natural predators that control pests. To do this, the farmer should learn to recognise insects and other animals that eat and control pests. 

Through careful planning and using all the other techniques available it should be possible to avoid the need for any crop spraying. If pests are still a problem natural products can be used to manage pests, including sprays made from chillies, onions, garlic or neem. Further information can be obtained from HDRA.

Even with these natural pesticides, their use should be limited as much as possible and only the safest ones used. It is wise to check with national and international organic standards to see which ones are allowed or recommended. 

Grasshoppers, slugs, termites, aphids 
and types of caterpillars are pests 
Ladybirds, spiders, ground beetles, 
parasitic wasps and praying mantis are predators 

Genetic diversity 

Within a single crop there can be many differences between plants. They may vary in height or ability to resist diseases, for example. These differences are genetic. 

Traditional crops grown by farmers contain greater genetic diversity than modern bred crops. Traditional varieties have been selected over many centuries to meet the requirements of farmers. Although many are being replaced by modern varieties, seeds are often still saved locally. 
Crops which have been bred by modern breeding methods tend to be very similar and if one plant is prone to disease, all the other plants are as well. 
Although some modern varieties may be very resistant to specific pests and diseases they are often less suited to local conditions than traditional varieties. 
It can therefore be dangerous to rely too much on any one of them. 
In organic systems, some variation or ‘genetic diversity' between the plants within a crop is beneficial. Growing a number of different crops rather than relying on one is also very important. This helps to protect against pests and diseases and acts as insurance against crop failure in unusual weather such as drought or flood. It is important to remember this when choosing which crops to grow. 

An organic farmer should try to: 

• grow a mixture of crops in the same field (mixed cropping, intercropping, strip cropping) 
• grow different varieties of the same crop 
• use as many local crop varieties as possible 
• save the seed of local and improved crop varieties rather than relying on buying seed from outside the farm every year. Exchange of seed with other farmers can also help to increase diversity, and ensure the survival of the many traditional crop varieties which are being lost as they are replaced by a few modern varieties. 
Strip cropping onions and tomatoes to prevent pest and disease attack 

Careful use of water 

In arid lands the careful use of water is as much a part of organic growing as is any other technique. 
As with other resources, organic farmers should try to use water which is available locally, avoiding using water faster than it is replaced naturally. 

There are many ways to use water carefully, including: 
• The use of terracing, rain water basins or catchments and careful irrigation 
• The addition of organic matter to the soil to improve its ability to hold water 
• The use of mulches to hold water in the soil by stopping the soil surface from drying out or becoming too hot 

Animal husbandry 

In an organic system, the welfare of the animals is considered very important. 
• Animals should not be kept in confined spaces where they cannot carry out their natural behaviour such as standing and moving around in an inadequate amount of space. However, care should be taken that animals do not damage crops. 
• Food for animals should be grown organically. 
• Breeds should be chosen to suit local needs and local conditions and resources These factors help to ensure that livestock are more healthy, better able to resist diseases and to provide good yields for the farmer. 

International standards 

The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) has produced a set of international organic standards, laid down by people from many countries. These give guidelines about what organic farming is and how it should be practised on the farm. 

International standards are also used to help countries set their own standards, which take into account different farming systems. Many countries have an organic standards authority which lays down national standards and awards a symbol to farms which have followed the standards. This symbol then allows farmers to market certified organic produce. This is important, as it ensures that people know that the food which they buy is organic. The main principles of organic farming were laid down by IFOAM in 1992. 

• To produce food of high nutritional quality in sufficient quantity. 
• To interact in a constructive and life enhancing way with all natural systems and cycles. 
• To encourage and enhance biological cycles within the farming system, involving micro-organisms, soil flora and fauna, plants and animals. 
• To maintain and increase long term fertility of soils. 
• To use, as far as possible, renewable resources in locally organised agricultural systems. 
• To work, as far as possible, within a closed system with regard to organic matter and nutrient elements. This aims to reduce external inputs. 
• To work, as far as possible, with materials and substances which can be reused or recycled, either on the farm or elsewhere. 
• To give all livestock living conditions which will allow them to perform the basic aspects of their innate behaviour. 
• To minimise all forms of pollution that may result from agricultural practices. 
• To maintain the genetic diversity of the agricultural system and its surroundings, including the protection of plant and wildlife habitats. 
• To allow agricultural producers a living according to the UN human rights; to cover their basic needs and obtain an adequate return and satisfaction from their work, including a safe working environment. 
• To consider the wider social and ecological impact of the farming system. 

Organic food is becoming popular in Europe and America. However for food to be sold as organic it must bear a symbol that proves that it is truly organic. This is obtained through a certification organisation. This is quite a complex procedure and is potentially expensive if there are not certification organisations in your country. 


What Is Organic Farming?

Organic farming works in harmony with nature rather than against it. This involves using techniques to achieve good crop yields without harming the natural environment or the people who live and work in it. The methods and materials that organic farmers use are summarized as follows: 

To keep and build good soil structure and fertility:

• recycled and composted crop wastes and animal manures 
• the right soil cultivation at the right time 
• crop rotation 
• green manures and legumes 
• mulching on the soil surface 

To control pests, diseases and weeds: 
• careful planning and crop choice 
• the use of resistant crops 
• good cultivation practice 
• crop rotation 
• encouraging useful predators that eat pests 
• increasing genetic diversity 
• using natural pesticides 

Organic farming also involves: 
• careful use of water resources 
• good animal husbandry 

A modern approach to farming 

Organic farming does not mean going ‘back' to traditional methods. Many of the farming methods used in the past are still useful today. Organic farming takes the best of these and combines them with modern scientific knowledge. Organic farmers do not leave their farms to be taken over by nature; they use all the knowledge, techniques and materials available to work with nature. In this way the farmer creates a healthy balance between nature and farming, where crops and animals can grow and thrive. To be a successful organic farmer, the farmer must not see every insect as a pest, every plant out of place as a weed and the solution to every problem in an artificial chemical spray. The aim is not to eradicate all pests and weeds, but to keep them down to an acceptable level and make the most of the benefits that they may provide. 

Combined techniques 

On an organic farm, each technique would not normally be used on its own. The farmer would use a range of organic methods at the same time to allow them to work together for the maximum benefit. For example the use of green manures and careful cultivation, together provide better control of weeds than if the techniques were used on their own. 


How Can I Prevent Breast Cancer?

Scientists are studying how best to prevent breast cancer. Ways to help lower your risk of getting breast cancer include-

  • Stay physically active by getting regular exercise.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Avoid using hormone replacement therapy (HRT), or find out the risks and benefits of HRT and if it is right for you.
  • Limit the amount of alcohol that you drink.

What Are The Symptoms Of Breast Cancer?

  • A lump that has changed.
  • A change in the size or shape of the breast.
  • Pain in the breast or nipple that does not go away.
  • Flaky, red, or swollen skin anywhere on the breast.
  • A nipple that is very tender or that suddenly turns inward.
  • Blood or any other type of fluid coming from the nipple that is not milk when nursing a baby.

Who Gets Breast Cancer?

All women are at risk for breast cancer. Men can also get breast cancer, but this is rare. Not counting skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women of all major racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Among Hispanic women, it is the most common cause of death from cancer, and it is the second most common cause of death from cancer among white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native women.

In 2007 (the most recent year for which statistics are available), 202,964 women were diagnosed with breast cancer and 40,598 women died from the disease.

† Although more white women get breast cancer, more black women die from it.